The energy source that can provide various forms of energy such as heating, light, electricity, and mechanical energy is called energy. Energy sources such as wind, hydro, and solar that can be continuously obtained in nature are called renewable energy; Chemical energy, nuclear energy, and other energy sources are used less and less, and cannot be replenished from nature in the short term. We refer to these types of energy as non renewable energy. With the increasing consumption of energy in human life and production, countries around the world have repeatedly called for energy conservation, emission reduction, and sustainable development.
Energy and Human Social Development
Looking back at history, humanity has gone through three energy periods: firewood, coal, and oil. In ancient times, since humans learned to use fire, they used firewood as fuel for cooking and heating, and engaged in production activities using human, animal, and simple wind and hydraulic machinery as power. The production and living standards were low, and social development was slow. The Industrial Revolution of the 18th century replaced firewood with coal as the main energy source, and steam engines became the main driving force of production. Industry developed rapidly, and by the end of the 19th century, electricity became the main power source and lighting source for industrial and mining enterprises. Not only did social productivity increase significantly, but human life and cultural level also greatly improved. However, at this time, the power industry mainly used coal as fuel. The development of oil resources has opened a new era of energy utilization, with the rapid development of automobiles, airplanes, and ocean going passenger and cargo ships, greatly promoting the prosperity of the world economy and creating an unprecedented material civilization in human history.
Why Demand Sustainable Energy Development
With the continuous increase in population and economic development, energy consumption is rapidly increasing, and human exploitation of energy has triggered an energy crisis. On the one hand, energy is not inexhaustible, but limited. Oil is the main energy source for many countries, and multiple Middle Eastern wars have erupted to compete for oil resources, triggering a fossil energy crisis dominated by oil. On the other hand, although energy is conserved, the process of energy conversion and transfer involving thermal phenomena is directional and irreversible, and the consumed internal energy cannot be collected and reused. That is to say, the utilization of energy is conditional, and the available energy is limited.
In addition, while humans consume various types of energy, they inevitably have an impact on the environment. For example, fuel combustion generates a large amount of carbon dioxide, exacerbating the greenhouse effect on the Earth; Automobile exhaust causes air pollution and urban heat island effect; Fuel combustion also generates harmful substances such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, dust, and carbon monoxide, which not only pollute the atmosphere but also form acid rain that harms soil, plants, and buildings; The burning of firewood and deforestation not only pollute the atmosphere, but also cause soil erosion and desertification.
Therefore, energy consumption must be coordinated with population, economy, and environment to ensure sustainable social development.
How to Achieve Sustainable Energy Development
There are two ways to achieve sustainable energy development: firstly, to improve energy utilization efficiency and reduce environmental damage in energy use; The second is to develop new ideal energy sources. Fossil energy, nuclear energy and other non renewable energy sources will only be used less and less, while renewable energy sources such as hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy can not only be continuously obtained in nature, but are also ideal clean energy sources. Taking the development and utilization of new energy as an example, this article illustrates the relationship between energy and sustainable development.
The development and utilization of hydropower and wind energy. The development and utilization of hydropower and wind energy is to convert their mechanical energy into electrical energy and deliver it to the user end. Hydroelectric and wind power generation technologies are mature and are the main sources of new energy in the world today. What needs to be improved is the problem of energy loss in transmission lines. Currently, high-voltage transmission technology is mainly used, and superconducting transmission technology may be implemented in the future.
The development and utilization of solar energy. There are two main ways to directly utilize solar energy: one is photothermal conversion, which uses a collector to collect energy from sunlight to heat substances such as water, converting solar energy into internal energy of water, also known as a solar water heater; The second is photovoltaic conversion, which uses solar panels to convert solar energy into electricity, also known as photovoltaic power generation. Both photothermal conversion and photoelectric conversion require further improvement in conversion efficiency and energy storage technology.
The development and utilization of nuclear energy. The conversion of enormous energy released during nuclear fission or fusion into electrical energy is called nuclear power. At present, hundreds of nuclear power plants have been built around the world, with nuclear power generation approaching one-fifth of the global electricity generation. Nuclear power has the advantages of not causing air pollution, not emitting carbon dioxide, consuming less nuclear energy, and having low power generation costs. However, it also has the disadvantages of high construction costs, producing radioactive waste, and causing significant pollution once a nuclear leak occurs.
Energy is an important foundation for economic development and human civilization, and it is also an important resource for the development of modern society. Adhering to the concept of sustainable development, developing and exploring various new energy sources is an important issue that humanity needs to address for further development in the future.